About this album

New Study: Alcohol Brands Underage Drinkers Prefer SPH's Michael Siegel says the research on youth alcohol marketing is similar to that done on smoking, which In 1998 resulted in an agreement between major U.S. tobacco companies and 46 states specifically banning the targeting of youth. Photo by flickr contributor tetradtx Bud Light, Smirnoff, and Budweiser share a distinction that may make their corporate owners wince: they are among a relatively small number of alcohol brands that underage drinkers choose most. This according to a first-of-a-kind report led by researchers at the School of Public Health, published online in Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research. It is the first national study to identify the specific alcohol brands underage youth drink. The study authors, from SPH and the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, say that it has important implications for alcohol research and policy. “We now know, for the first time, what alcohol brands—and which companies—are profiting the most from the sale of their products to underage drinkers,” says study lead author Michael Siegel, an SPH professor of community health sciences. “The companies implicated by this study as the leading culprits in the problem of underage drinking need to take immediate action to reduce the appeal of their products to youth.” The study found that the top 25 of nearly 900 brands account for nearly half of youth alcohol consumption. In contrast, adult consumption is much more widely spread among different brands. Close to 30 percent of underage youths surveyed reported drinking Bud Light within the past month, 17 percent had consumed Smirnoff malt beverages within the previous month, and about 15 percent reported drinking Budweiser in the 30-day period. Of the top 25 consumed brands, 12 were spirits brands (including 4 vodkas), 9 were beers, and 4 were flavored alcohol beverages. The researchers surveyed 1,032 young people, ages 13 to 20, using an Internet-based questionnaire. Respondents were asked about their past 30-day consumption of 898 brands of alcohol, spread among 16 alcoholic beverage types, including the frequency and amount of each brand consumed. The brands with the highest rates of consumption among underage drinkers were: Bud Light (27.9 percent), Smirnoff Malt Beverages (17.0 percent), Budweiser (14.6 percent), Smirnoff Vodkas (12.7 percent), Coors Light (12.7 percent), Jack Daniel’s Bourbons (11.4 percent), Corona Extra (11.3 percent), Mike’s (10.8 percent), Captain Morgan Rums (10.4 percent), and Absolut Vodkas (10.1 percent). “Importantly, this report paves the way for subsequent studies to explore the association between exposure to alcohol advertising and marketing efforts and drinking behavior in young people,” says David Jernigan, director of the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth and a study author. Alcohol is responsible for 4,700 deaths a year among young people under the age of 21. More than 70 percent of high school students have consumed alcohol, past studies indicate, and about 22 percent engage in heavy episodic drinking. At least 14 studies have found that the more young people are exposed to alcohol advertising and marketing, the more likely they are to drink—or if they already drink, to drink more. Siegel and the coauthors note that scientific literature lacks studies examining the link between youth exposure to advertising for specific brands and the consumption of those brands—something the researchers will tackle next. “That is exactly the direction we are going with this research,” Siegel says. “We are now in the process of collecting the data, and our next step will be to examine the relationship between the advertising data and youth brand preferences.” The research examining alcohol marketing to youth, he says, is similar to earlier work done around smoking, which identified certain companies that were specifically trying to target young smokers. After years of pressure from antismoking groups and the Federal Trade Commission, the Camel brand ended its popular cartoon-based “Joe Camel” campaign in 1997. In 1998, the major U.S. tobacco companies and 46 states signed a settlement agreement that specifically banned targeting youth. “It was this line of research, into the relationships between brand-specific advertising and underage smoking, that provided the strongest evidence that marketing was affecting youth habits,” Siegel says. The study authors say their work could similarly inform policy efforts to reduce underage drinking. “Alcohol prevention programs and policies can now target specific brands, and advocacy efforts can focus on specific companies that manufacture the products most involved in problem drinking behavior among youth,” they write in the study. Siegel says that one surprising finding of the new study was that several brands of flavored alcohol—among them Smirnoff’s malt and Mike’s—were very popular with young drinkers, yet not similarly favored by adults. Many other drinks that ranked high in the survey also are popular among adults, as expected. “It really begs the question: what is it about these brands that makes them disproportionately popular among underage drinkers?” Siegel says. “We want to look into the reasons—and certainly one of the potential reasons is marketing.” The work of the SPH and Bloomberg School of Public Health researchers examining the links between youth drinking and marketing is being funded by a four-year, $2.4 million grant from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Previous studies led by Siegel have examined consumption patterns among underage drinkers, as well as alcohol advertising in magazines and on the Boston MBTA. SPH research identifies top preferences http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/acer.12084/abstract Lisa Chedekel can be reached at chedekel@bu.edu.

Enter the Official DV-2018 USA Green Card Lottery

Enter the Official DV-2018 USA Green Card Lottery President Obama The annual Diversity Visa Lottery also known as the Green Card Lottery is a US government program that makes 55,000 Permanent Resident cards available every year to persons from “underrepresented countries,” which have been less represented in employment and family-based preference categories in the United States of America and who meet two basic eligibility requirements. This years (2016) Green Card Lottery Program is called DV-2018 (the year successful applicants may enter the United States of America on the green card they won), and is now open to all individuals worldwide who meet two basic entry requirements. The Program makes Permanent Resident Cards available to the winners, authorizing the winners and their families to live, study and work in the United States of America as permanent residents. The Green Card Lottery program is a United States congressionally-mandated program for receiving a United States Permanent Resident Card, also popularly known as a USA Green Card, due to the green color of the Permanent Resident Card. DV-2017 is closed. Now accepting DV-2018 Lottery applications How do I apply for a Green Card in the Diversity Visa Lottery ? White house Applications for the USA Green Card Lottery are accepted online only. In the past, paper applications with signatures and attached passport photos were accepted. In 2003, this process was changed by the United States Government and applicants may only apply online now. We have streamlined the online registration process, making it a fast, secure and reliable three step registration process that takes around 15 minutes for each applicant. from- www.usadiversitylottery.com Do you qualify to enter the American DV-2018 Green Card Lottery? Do you qualify to enter the American DV-2018 Green Card Lottery Enrolment into this years USA Diversity Visa Green Card Lottery program is open to all individuals world-wide, who meet the two entry requirements specified below. If you meet these two entry requirements, you can enter the USA Green Card lottery here: Register for the DV-2018 Lottery. Note: This years lottery is called the DV-2018 Lottery, where 2018 means the year where successful applicants can enter the United States of America in January, 2018 after they have won a permanent resident card in the lottery, submitted their immigration forms and participated in a successful green card interview at the Embassy closest to where they live. 1. To be Eligible to enter the Green Card Lottery you must be a native of a qualifying country To qualify for the USA Diversity Visa Lottery, you must be a foreign citizen or national not born in the United States of America, from a country with a low immigration rate to the United States. People born in countries with high US immigration are excluded from this immigration program. Please see the table below, for countries whose natives are currently excluded from this years immigration lottery program. Please note, eligibility is determined only by the country of your birth, it is not based on country of citizenship or current residence. This is the most common misperception that applicants make when entering this immigration program.from-www.usadiversitylottery.com/requiremnts.html

About this full version Software

full version Software Computer software, or simply software, also known as computer programs, is the non-tangible component of computers. It represents the set of programs that govern the operation of a computer system and make the hardware run. Computer software contrasts with computer hardware, which is the physical component of computers. Computer hardware and software require each other and neither can be realistically used without the other. Computer software includes all computer programs regardless of their architecture; for example, executable files, libraries and scripts are computer software. Yet, it shares their mutual properties: software consists of clearly defined instructions that upon execution, instructs hardware to perform the tasks for which it is designed. Software is stored in computer memory and cannot be touched, just as a 3D model shown in an illustration cannot be touched.[1] At the lowest level, executable code consists of machine language instructions specific to an individual processor – typically a central processing unit (CPU). A machine language consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions that change the state of the computer from its preceding state. For example, an instruction may change the value stored in a particular storage location inside the computer – an effect that is not directly observable to the user. An instruction may also (indirectly) cause something to appear on a display of the computer system – a state change which should be visible to the user. The processor carries out the instructions in the order they are provided, unless it is instructed to "jump" to a different instruction, or interrupted. Software is usually written in high-level programming languages that are easier and more efficient for humans to use (closer to natural language) than machine language.[2] High-level languages are compiled or interpreted into machine language object code. Software may also be written in a low-level assembly language, essentially, a vaguely mnemonic representation of a machine language using a natural language alphabet. Assembly language is converted into object code via an assembler. History Types of software List of software categories Computer software can be put into categories based on common function, type, or field of use. There are three broad classifications: Application software is the general designation of computer programs for performing user tasks. Application software may be general purpose (word processing, web browsers, ...) or have a specific purpose (accounting, truck scheduling, ...). Application software contrast with system software. System software is a generic term referring to the computer programs used to start and run computer systems and networks. Computer programming tools, such as compilers and linkers, are used to translate and combine computer program source code and libraries into executable RAMs (programs that will belong to one of the three said categories). Contents 1 Application software 2 System software 3 Development software 4 See also Application software 1 Free application software 2 Astrology software 3 Business software 4 Chemical engineering software 5 Software for children 6 Communication software 7 Computer-aided manufacturing software 8 Data management software 9 Desktop widgets 10 Editing software 11 Educational software 12 Entertainment software 13 Genealogy software 14 Government software 15 Graphics software 16 Industrial software 17 Knowledge representation software 18 Language software 19 Legal software 20 Library and information science software 21 Multimedia software 22 Music software 23 Personal information managers 24 Computer programming tools 25 Religious software 26 Science software 27 Simulation software 28 Spreadsheet software 29 Stagecraft software 30 Application software suites 31 Transport software 32 Digital typography 33 Video games 34 Video software 35 Word processors 36 Workflow software System software 1 System software 2 Free system software 3 Boot loaders 4 Compatibility layers 5 Device drivers 6 Firmware 7 Graphical user interfaces 8 Middleware 9 Operating systems 10 Utility software 11 Windowing system Development software 1 Computer programming tools 2 OS X programming tools 3 Bug and issue tracking software 4 Build automation 5 Code navigation tools 6 Code search engines 7 Compilers 8 Compiling tools 9 Computer-aided software engineering tools 10 Data modeling tools 11 Debuggers 12 Desktop database application development tools 13 Disassemblers 14 Discontinued development tools 15 Documentation generators 16 Text editors 17 EXE packers 18 Formal methods tools 19 Free computer programming tools 20 Integrated development environments 21 Java development tools 22 JavaScript programming tools 23 Linux programming tools 24 Software-localization tools 25 Microsoft development tools 26 Mobile software programming tools 27 Profilers 28 Programming language implementation 29 Programming tools for Windows 30 Revision control systems 31 RISC OS programming tools 32 Software testing tools 33 Static program analysis tools 34 UML tools 35 Unix programming tools 36 User interface builders 37 Web development software 38 Computer programming tool stubs (Content copy from) www.en.wikipedia.org

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